Mexico City

Gonzalo De La Rosa, Xochimilco, Wikimedia Commons

Gonzalo De La Rosa, Xochimilco, Wikimedia Commons

On January 11, 2017, Mexico City adopted rights of nature into its Constitution. The new Constitution is expected to enter into force in September 2018.

The relevant sections of the new Constitution are paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 13. They assert that "the right to the preservation and protection of nature will be guaranteed by the authorities of Mexico City." Additionally, Article 13 purports that a secondary law shall be passed "to recognise and regulate the protection of the rights of nature, as formed by all its ecosystems and species as a collective entity with collective rights." The effect will be that citizens of Mexico City will be able to enforce fundamental rights on behalf of nature. 

The constitutional amendment followed the “First International Forum for the Rights of Mother Earth,” held in Mexico City on June 1-5 2016. The Forum was “centered around the importance of legislating the Rights of Mother Earth” and worked towards supporting and implementing the constitutional amendment.