In 2010, the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth, was adopted internationally in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Since then, new national statutes require the people to “uphold and respect the rights of Mother Earth.” Passed in 2009, The Law of Mother Earth defines these rights as the right to: life, the diversity of life, water, clean air, equilibrium, restoration and pollution-free living. Among the guiding principles of this law are harmony, collective good, guarantee of the regeneration of Mother Earth and no commercialism.
Additionally, in 2012, Bolivia passed the Framework Law of Mother Earth and Holistic Development for Living Well. In reaction to the pressing concerns of climate change, the law “aims to link the three concepts of: (i) the rights of Mother Earth; (ii) Holistic Development; and (iii) Living Well” or “Vivir Bien.” A main objective is to guarantee “the ability of the components and life systems of Mother Earth to regenerate.” This is done in part by the adoption of the precautionary principle, use of holistic management and development, and adoption of the indigenous worldview.